Geography of Ecuador – The Ultimate Free Guide 2021

Learn facts and Geography of Ecuador including Major Geographical Features, Natural resources, Region, area, Capital, Border countries, rivers in Ecuador.

  • Ecuador is a country in western South America, bordering the Pacific Ocean at the Equator, for which the country is named. Ecuador encompasses a wide range of natural formations and climates, from the desert-like southern coast to the snowcapped peaks of the Andes mountain range to the plains of the Amazon Basin. Cotopaxi in Ecuador is one of the world’s highest active volcanos. It also has a large series of rivers that follow the southern border and spill into the northwest area of Peru.
  • Ecuador is roughly the size of Colorado and is bordered by Colombia and Peru. The high Andes Mountains form the backbone of the country.

Geography of Ecuador

Geography of Ecuador
Fig: Geography of Ecuador Wikipedia




Ranked 73rd




17.4 Million

Bordering Countries:

Columbia and Peru

Total Size:

109,484 Sq Mili

Geographical Coordinates:

1.8312° S, 78.1834° W

World Region or Continent:

South America

General Terrain:

Ecuador can be divided into three types of terrain, namely:

  • The Sierra, which is the central highlands,
  • The jungles of the Oriente and the coastal plains, which are known as the Costa. Due to the various elevations of the land, Ecuador experiences a difference in climate between the coast and inland areas.

Geographical Low Point:

Pacific Ocean (0 m)

Geographical High Point:

Chimborazo 6,267 m (20,561 ft)


  • The climate of Ecuador is tropical and varies with altitude and region, due to differences in elevation and, to a degree, in proximity to the equator.
  • he coastal lowlands in the western part of Ecuador are typically warm with temperatures in the region of 25 °C (77 °F).
  • Coastal areas are affected by ocean currents and are hot and rainy between January and April.
  • The weather in Quito is consistent with that of a subtropical highland climate.
  • The average temperature during the day is 70 °F (21 °C), which generally falls to an average of 50 °F (10 °C) at night.
  • The average temperature annually is 64 °F (18 °C).
  • There are two seasons in the city: dry and wet.
  • The dry season runs from June to September and the wet season is from October to May.

Major cities:

  • Ambato
  • Azogues
  • Arajuno
  • Babahoyo
  • Bahía de Caráquez
  • Baños de Agua Santa
  • Cuenca
  • Durán
  • Esmeraldas
  • Guaranda
  • Guayaquil
  • Ibarra
  • La Libertad
  • Latacunga
  • Loja
  • Macas
  • Machala
  • Manta
  • Milagro
  • Nueva Loja
  • Portoviejo
  • Piñas
  • Pintag
  • Quevedo
  • Quito (capital)
  • Riobamba
  • Santo Domingo de los Colorados
  • Salinas
  • Shell Mera
  • Tulcán

Major Land forms:

  • Ecuador is comprised of four distinct geographical regions:
  1. El Oriente (Amazon jungle) in the east,
  2. la Sierra (Andes Mountains) in the center,
  3. la Costa (the Pacific coastal lowlands) in the west, and
  4. The majestic Galápagos Islands off the coast.

Major Rivers and Lakes:

Major Rivers:

  • Esmeraldas River
  • Guayas
  • Guayllabamba River
  • Daule
  • Babahoyo Rivers
  • Pastaza,
  • Napo, and
  • Putumayo

Major Lakes:

  • Black Lakes of Jumbura
  • El Junco
  • Mikakucha
  • Lake Pilchicocha
  • Yawarkucha

Longest River:

Río Napo 855 km

Natural Resources:

  • Gold,
  • Silver, and
  • Crude petroleum

Major Geographical Features:

Biomes & Ecosystems:

Tropical and subtropical dry forests (also called seasonal tropical forest or tropical dry forest), desert, and alpine..


Ecuador is characterized by three distinct regions:

  • The coast; the highlands, or Sierra; and
  • The eastern interior lowlands, or Oriente.
  • The coast, except for a hilly area west of Guayaquil, is a low alluvial plain from 32 to 185 km (20 to 115 mi) wide, comprising about one-quarter of the national territory.


Pacific Ocean


  • Santa Cruz Island
  • Isabela Island
  • San Cristobal Island
  • Floreana Island
  • Baltra Island

Mountains of Ecudaor:

  • Chimborazo
  • Cotopaxi
  • Cayambe
  • Antisana
  • El Altar/Capac-Urcu
  • Iliniza Sur
  • Sangay
  • Iliniza Norte
  • Tungurahua
  • Carihuairazo
  • Reventador
  • Cotacachi
  • Sincholagua
  • Corazón
  • Pichincha
  • Chiles
  • Rumiñahui
  • Imbabura
  • Cerro Hermoso
  • Atacazo
  • Pasochoa
  • Sumaco

Provinces of Ecuador :

  • Azuay
  •  Bolívar
  •  Cañar
  •  Carchi
  •  Chimborazo
  •  Cotopaxi
  •  El Oro
  •  Esmeraldas
  •  Galápagos
  •  Guayas
  •  Imbabura
  •  Loja
  •  Los Ríos
  •  Manabí
  •  Morona Santiago
  •  Napo
  •  Orellana
  •  Pastaza
  •  Pichincha
  •  Santa Elena
  •  Santo Domingo de los Tsáchilas
  •  Sucumbíos
  •  Tungurahua
  •  Zamora Chinchipe

Facts about Ecuador:

  • Ecuador is the closest country to space.
  • Ecuador is the only country in the world named after a geographical feature.
  • Ecuador has the world’s first UNESCO World Heritage Sites.
  • Ecuador had a long-standing border conflict with Peru.
  • Ecuador was once joined with Colombia and Venezuela.
  • Charles Darwin developed his Theory of Coral Atolls in the Galapagos Islands.

See Also:

World Map


Naveed Tawargeri

Hi, I'm Naveed Tawargeri, and I'm the owner and creator of this blog. I'm a Software Developer with a passion for Programming. 

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