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Geography of Peru – The Ultimate Free Guide 2021

Peru is the third largest country in South America, after Brazil and Argentina. It is made up of a variety of landscapes, from mountains and beaches to deserts and rain forests. Most people live along the coast of the Pacific Ocean, where the capital, Lima, is located.

  • Peru is a country on the central western coast of South America facing the Pacific Ocean. It lies wholly in the Southern Hemisphere, its northernmost extreme reaching to 1.8 minutes of latitude or about 3.3 kilometres (2.1 mi) south of the equator.
  • Peru has a population of 32 million, which includes Amerindians, Europeans, Africans and Asians. The main spoken language is Spanish, although a significant number of Peruvians speak Quechua languages, Aymara, or other indigenous languages.

Geography of Peru


Area:

Ranked 20th

Capital:

Lima

Population:

32.5 Million

Bordering Countries:

  • Bolivia: 1,075 km
  • Brazil: 2,995 km
  • Chile: 171 km
  • Colombia: 1,800 km
  • Ecuador: 1,420 km

Total Size:

1,285,215.6 km2

Geographical Coordinates:

10°00′S 76°00′W

World Region or Continent:

South America

General Terrain:

  • Western coastal plain (costa),
  • High and rugged Andes in center (sierra),
  • Eastern lowland jungle of Amazon Basin (selva).

Geographical Low Point:

Bayóvar Depression – 34 metres

Geographical High Point:

Huascarán Sur – 6,768 metres

Climate:

  • Peru has a tropical climate with a wet and dry season.
  • The central and southern coast have a subtropical desert climate, despite this region being located in the tropics. The Humboldt Current, serving as one cause of climactic differentiation, is 7 to 8 °C (13 to 14 °F) colder than normal tropical seas at 14 to 19 °C (57 to 66 °F), thus preventing high tropical temperatures from appearing.
  • Rainfall averages 5 mm (0.2 in) per year near the Chilean border to 200 mm (7.9 in) per year on the northern coast and nearer the Andes.
  • Most summers (February–April) have pleasant temperatures ranging from 19 to 21 °C (66 to 70 °F) during the night to about 28 to 29 °C (82 to 84 °F) during the daytime.
  • Winters (August–October) are very humid, and range from 12 to 15 °C (54 to 59 °F) during the nights to around the 17 to 18 °C (63 to 64 °F) during the day.
  • The spring (November–January) and autumn (May–July) months have a pleasant climate that ranges from 23 °C (73 °F) during the day to around 17 °C (63 °F) during the night.
  • The Yunga valleys, the climate tends to be ~3 °C (5.4 °F) drier and warmer during any given month.

Major cities:

  • Lima
  • Arequipa
  • Trujillo
  • Chiclayo
  • Piura
  • Iquitos
  • Cusco
  • Chimbote
  • Huancayo
  • Tacna

Major Land forms:

Peru’s landscape consists of three regions stretched north to south:

  1. The dry coastal plain (locally called the Costa) in the west,
  2. The Andes Mountains (also called the Sierra) in the center, and,
  3. The east, the vast Amazon rainforest (usually called the Selva, and sometimes La Montaña).

Major Rivers and Lakes:

Major Rivers:

  • Amazon
  • Purus
  • Jurua
  • Marañón
  • Putumayo
  • Ucayali
  • Javary
  • Huallaga
  • Napo

Major Lakes:

  • Acucocha
  • Alcacocha
  • Arapa
  • Aricota
  • Belaunde
  • Carpa
  • Chauya
  • Choclococha
  • Huacachina
  • Imiria
  • Jucumarini
  • Junin
  • Quishuar Lakes
  • Langui Layo
  • Lagunillas
  • Lauricocha
  • Loriscota
  • Llanganuco Lakes
  • Marcapomacocha
  • Mucurca
  • Palcacocha
  • Paca
  • Pacucha
  • Parinacochas
  • Parón
  • Paucarcocha
  • Pelagatos
  • Pías
  • Pomacanchi
  • Pumacocha
  • Punrun
  • Querococha
  • Conococha
  • Colorcocha
  • Rimachi
  • Salinas
  • Sandoval
  • Saracocha
  • Sausacocha
  • Sauce
  • Shegue
  • Sibinacocha
  • Suches
  • Titicaca
  • Tragadero
  • Umayo
  • Orcococha
  • Valencia
  • Vizcacha
  • Huangacocha
  • Huarmicocha
  • Huaroncocha
  • Huascacocha
  • Huichicocha
  • Vilacota
  • Huiñaymarca
  • Yanawayin
  • Yanaqucha

Largest lake:

Lake Titicaca

Natural Resources:

  • Gold,
  • Silver,
  • Copper,
  • Zinc,
  • Lead, and
  • Iron,
  • oil,
  • Natural gas.

Major Geographical Features:

Biomes & Ecosystems:

The country’s biodiversity can be organized into four biomes:

  • Amazon,
  • Andean Highlands,
  • Drylands, and
  • The Tropical Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forest ..

Topography:

Peru is divided into three contrasting topographical regions:

  • The coast (costa),
  • The highlands (sierra), and
  • The eastern rainforests (selva).

Oceans:

Peru is a country on the central western coast of South America facing the Pacific Ocean.

Islands:

  • Amantaní
  • Anapia Island
  • Asia Island 
  • Blanca Island
  • Caana Island 
  • Chirita Islands
  • Correa Island 
  • Frontón Island
  • Ferrol Island 
  • Guañape Islands
  • Iscaya Island 
  • La Vieja Island
  • Lobos de Tierra Island 
  • Lobos de Afuera Island 
  • Matapalo Island 
  • Quipata Island 
  • San Gallan Island 
  • San Lorenzo Island 
  • Santa Ana Islands 
  • Soto Island 
  • Taquile Island
  • Tortuga Island 
  • Ustute Island 
  • Yuspique Island
  • Viuda Island 

Mountains in Peru:

  • Huascarán S
  • Huascarán N
  • Yerupajá
  • Coropuna
  • Huandoy
  • Coropuna Casulla
  • Ausangate
  • Huantsan (Tunshu)
  • Chopicalqui
  • Siula Grande
  • Chinchey (Rurichinchay)
  • Coropuna E
  • Ampato
  • Palcaraju
  • Salcantay
  • Santa Cruz
  • Copa
  • Ranrapalca
  • Hualca Hualca
  • Caraz
  • Huandoy S
  • Pucaranra
  • Hualcán (Rahupakinan)
  • Yerupaja Chico
  • Callangate (a.k.a. Qullpa Ananta, Cayangate or Chimboya)
  • Chacraraju
  • Chumpe (a.k.a. Hatunrit’i, Ñañaluma, Wisk’achani, Yanaluma)
  • Alcamarinayoc (a.k.a. Qullqi Cruz)
  • Jirishanca
  • Hatunuma (Pico Tres)
  • Solimana
  • Chachani
  • Yayamari (Montura)
  • Pucajirca
  • Chaupi Orco
  • Quitaraju
  • Tocllaraju

Land Use:

Only 3% of Peru’s land is arable, with 0.5% being suitable for permanent crops. Permanent pastureland accounts for 21% of Peru’s land use, and forests and woodland accounting for 66% of the landscape. Approximately 9.5% (1993 est.) of Peruvian land is attributed to population centers, coastal regions, and other space.

Irrigated land:

12,800 km² (1993 est.)

Natural Hazards:

Peru experiences include earthquakes, tsunamis, flooding, landslides, and mild volcanic activity.

States of Peru:

  • Amazonas
  • Ancash
  • Apurimac
  • Arequipa
  • Ayacucho
  • Cajamarca
  • Callao
  • Cusco
  • Huancavelica
  • Huanuco
  • Ica
  • Junin
  • La Libertad
  • Lambayeque
  • Lima
  • Loreto
  • Madre De Dios
  • Moquegua
  • Pasco
  • Piura
  • San Martin
  • Tacna
  • Tumbes
  • Ucayali

Color Map.

All Other Maps.

See Also:

World Map

References:

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