Geography of Colombia – The Ultimate Free Guide 2021

Learn facts and Geography of Colombia including Major Geographical Features, Natural resources, Region, area, Capital, Border countries, rivers in Colombia.

  • The Republic of Colombia is situated largely in the northwest of South America, with some territories falling within the boundaries of Central America. It is bordered to the northwest by Panama; to the east by Venezuela and Brazil; to the south by Ecuador and Peruand it shares maritime limits with Costa Rica, Nicaragua, Honduras, Jamaica, the Dominican Republic, and Haiti.
  • Colombia has a land size of 1,138,910 km2 (439,740 sq mi) and it is the 25th largest nation in the world and the fourth-largest country in South America (after Brazil, Argentina, and Peru).Colombia’s population is not evenly distributed, and most of the people live in the mountainous western portion of the country as well as along the northern coastline.

Geography of Colombia

Geography of Colombia
Fig:Geography of ColombiaWikipedia


  • Andean region
  • Caribbean region
  • Pacific region
  • Orinoquía region
  • Amazon region


4 00 N, 72 00 W


Ranked 25th




5.03 Crores

Bordering Countries:


Total Size:

1,138,910 km2


3,208 km (1,993 mi)

World Region or Continent:

South America

General Terrain:

Colombia is a land of extremes. Through its center run the towering, snow-covered volcanoes and mountains of the Andes. Tropical beaches line the north and west. And there are deserts in the north and vast grasslands, called Los Llanos, in the east.

Geographical Low Point:

Pacific Ocean 0 metres (0 ft)

Geographical High Point:

Pico Cristobal Colon 5,775 metres


Tropical along coast and eastern plains; cooler in highlands

Major cities:

  • Barranquilla,
  • Bogotá,
  • Cali,
  • Cartagena and
  • Medellin

Major Land forms:

  • Pacific Ocean,
  • Andes Mountains and
  • The Cordillera Oriental.Major landforms.

Major Rivers and Lakes:

Major Rivers:

  • Magndalena River
  • Orinoco
  • Amazon River
  • Cauca River
  • Atrato River
  • Meta River
  • Rio River
  • Bagota River

Lakes in Columbia:

Lake Tota

Natural Hazards:

  • Highlands subject to volcanic eruptions;
  • occasional earthquakes;
  • periodic droughtsfamous Places

Natural Resources:

  • Petroleum,
  • Natural gas,
  • Coal,
  • Iron ore,
  • Nickel,
  • Gold,
  • Copper,
  • Emeralds,
  • Hydro power Natural Resources

Major Geographical Features:

Biomes & Ecosystems:

  • Equatorial humid
  • Alternating tropical
  • Subxerofítico tropical
  • Tropical desert
  • Mountain Orobioma
  • Heat-treated thermo-orobioma
  • Andean jungle orobioma
  • Moorish orobioma


Colombia’s topography is characterized by the Andean Cordillera range, situated in the west-central part of the country, and which stretches from north to south, almost along the whole length of the country.


Atlantic and Pacific oceans.


  • San Andrés (island)
  • Isla de Providencia
  • Múcura Island
  • Santa Cruz del Islote
  • Tierra Bomba Island


  • Nevado del Huila
  • Nevado del Ruiz
  • Pico Cristóbal Colón
  • Pico Simón Bolívar
  • Nevado del Tolima

States of Colombia:

  • Antioquia
  • Bolívar
  • Boyacá
  • Cauca
  • Cundinamarca
  • Magdalena
  • Panamá
  • Pamplona
  • Tolima

Facts about Colombia:

  • It is the second most biodiverse country in the world, after only Brazil which is 10 times its size, and one of only 17 “megadiverse” countries.
  • It has the highest amount of species by area in the world, including more species of bird than all of Europe and North America combined.
  • The country’s name is pronounced Col-o-mbia, not Col-u-mbia, which is a common mistake by non-Spanish speaking visitors.
  • It is the only country in South America that has coastlines on both the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea.
  • It has a vibrant music scene. Two of the best known Colombian musicians are Shakira and Juanes.
  • The traditional national sport of Colombia is called Tejo, a team sport that involves launching objects at a target. The most popular sport in Colombia is football (soccer). The Colombian national team won the 2001 Copa América (South American Championship).
  • It is mandatory for radio and public television in Colombia to play the national anthem every day at 6 am and 6 pm.
  • It is home to the Cano Cristales – the “River of Five Colors” or the “Liquid Rainbow.” Located in the Serrania de la Macarena province of Meta, the river’s bed changes color between yellow, green, blue, black, and especially red, beginning the end of July and through November.
  • It is the world’s leading source of emeralds. It is also the third largest exporter of coffee in the world after Brazil and Vietnam.

See Also:

World Map


Naveed Tawargeri

Hi, I'm Naveed Tawargeri, and I'm the owner and creator of this blog. I'm a Software Developer with a passion for Programming. 

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