Geography of Egypt – The Ultimate Free Guide 2021

In this article we will learn about Geography of Egypt.

  • Egypt officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.
  • Egypt is a Mediterranean country bordered by the Gaza Strip and Israel to the northeast, the Gulf of Aqaba and the Red Sea to the east, Sudan to the south, and Libya to the west. Across the Gulf of Aqaba lies Jordan, across the Red Sea lies Saudi Arabia, and across the Mediterranean lie Greece, Turkey and Cyprus, although none share a land border with Egypt.
  • Egypt has one of the longest histories of any country, tracing its heritage along the Nile Delta back to the 6th–4th millennia BCE. Considered a cradle of civilization, Ancient Egypt saw some of the earliest developments of writing, agriculture, urbanization, organized religion and central government.

Geography of Egypt


Egypt is divided into four geographic regions.

  • Nile Valley and the Delta,
  • The Western Desert,
  • The Eastern Desert, and
  • The Sinai Peninsula.


1,010,408 Km2





Bordering Countries:

Egypt borders Libya to the west, the Gaza Strip to the northeast, Israel to the east and Sudan to the south.

Total Size:

390,121 sq mi

Geographical Coordinates:

30°2′N 31°13′E

World Region or Continent:


General Terrain:

Southern Egypt’s landscape contains low mountains and desert. Northern Egypt has wide valleys near the Nile and desert to the east and west. North of Cairo, the capital, is the sprawling, triangular Nile River Delta. This fertile land is completely covered with farms.

Geographical Low Point:

The Qattara Depression, which includes the country’s lowest point, encompasses 19,605 square kilometers (7,570 sq mi), which is similar to the size of Lake Ontario. It is largely below sea level and is 133 meters (436 ft) below sea level at the lowest.

Geographical High Point:

Mount Kātrīnā, Kātrīnā also spelled Katrīnah, also called Mount Catherine, peak in the Sinai Peninsula, Egypt. The country’s highest point, Mount Kātrīnā reaches 8,668 feet (2,642 metres). A chapel and a meteorological station are located at the summit.


Egypt’s climate is dry, hot, and dominated by desert. It has a mild winter season with rain falling along coastal areas, and a hot and dry summer season (May to September). … Egypt also experiences hot wind storms, known as “khamsin”, which carry sand and dust and sweep across the northern coast of Africa.

Major cities:

  • Cairo
  • Alexandria
  • Giza
  • Port Said
  • Suez
  • Al Mahallah al Kubra
  • Luxor
  • Asyut
  • Al Mansurah
  • Tanda
  • Al Fayyum
  • Zagazig
  • Ismailia
  • Kafr ad Dawwar
  • Aswan
  • Qina
  • Halwan
  • Damanhur
  • Al Minya
  • Idku
  • Sohag
  • New Cairo
  • Bani Suwayf
  • Shibin al Kawm
  • Banha
  • Talkha
  • Kafr ash Shaykh
  • Mallawi
  • Dikirnis
  • Idfu

Major Land forms:

Egypt consists of four main geological areas, Nile River valley and its delta, Western Desert, Eastern Desert, and Sinai Peninsula. The Nile Valley broadens gradually toward the north of Egypt and it is bounded by several sedimentary basins and desert sands that have been settled upon fluvial soils.

Major Rivers and Lakes:

Major Rivers:

There is only one year-round river in Egypt, the Nile. It has no non-seasonal tributaries for its entire length in Egypt, though it has two further upstream, the Blue Nile and White Nile, which merge in central Sudan.

Major Lakes:

  • Lake Nasser
  • Manzala Lake
  • Maryut Lake
  • Lake Bardawil
  • Lake Moeris
  • Wadi Elrayan Lakes
  • Edko Lake
  • Toshka Lakes
  • Great Bitter Lake
  • Borolus Lake
  • Wadi El Natrun
  • Salt lakes of Siwa

Natural Resources:

Egypt has deposits of petroleum, natural gas, iron ore, phosphates, manganese, limestone, gypsum, talc, asbestos, lead, and zinc.

Major Geographical Features:

Biomes & Ecosystems:

There are two biomes in Egypt. The first and largest is the desert biome. This is the hottest biome where there is little life. The desert of Egypt is dry and composed of limestone sand. This biome covers nearly all of Egypt. The second Egyptian biome is the freshwater biome. The Nile River supplies water to Egyptians. Annual floods provide nourishment to crops allowing Egyptians to consume producers for energy needed to survive. While this biome is not the largest in the country, the Nile River is the heart of Egypt. Below is a climatogram of the Sahara Desert of Egypt.


The topography of Egypt is dominated by the Nile. For about 750 miles (1,200 km) of its northward course through the country, the river cuts its way through bare desert, its narrow valley a sharply delineated strip of green, abundantly fecund in contrast to the desolation that surrounds it.


Mediterranean Sea


  • Giftun Islands
  • Qulaan Islands
  • Pharaoh’s Island
  • Abu Minqar Island
  • El Ikhwa Islands
  • Zabargad Islands
  • Shadwan Island

Mountain Ranges:

  • Jabal Mousa
  • Mount Catherine
  • Shaiyb al-Banat
  • Willow Peak
  • Mount Serbal
  • Mount Helal
  • Hashem el-Tarif
  • Gabal Sin Bishar
  • Gabal Tingar
  • Jabal `Ilbah

Governorates of Egypt:

  •  Alexandria
  •  Aswan
  •  Asyut
  •  Beheira
  •  Beni Suef
  •  Cairo
  •  Dakahlia
  •  Damietta
  •  Faiyum
  •  Gharbia
  •  Giza
  •  Ismailia
  •  Kafr El Sheikh
  •  Suez
  •  Luxor
  •  Matruh
  •  Minya
  •  Monufia
  •  New Valley
  •  North Sinai
  •  Port Said
  •  Qalyubia
  •  Qena
  •  Red Sea
  •  Sharqia
  •  Sohag
  •  South Sinai

Color Map.

See Also:

World Map


Naveed Tawargeri

Hi, I'm Naveed Tawargeri, and I'm the owner and creator of this blog. I'm a Software Developer with a passion for Programming. 

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