Geography of Eritrea – The Ultimate Free Guide 2021

Learn the facts and Geography of Eritrea including Major Geographical Features, Natural resources, Region, area, Capital, Border countries, rivers in Eritrea.

  • Eritrea ,officially the State of Eritrea, is a country in the Horn of Africa region of Eastern Africa.
  • Its capital and largest city is Asmara.
  • It is bordered by Ethiopia in the south, Sudan in the west, and Djibouti in the southeast.
  • The northeastern and eastern parts of Eritrea have an extensive coastline along the Red Sea.
  • Eritrea is a multi-ethnic country with nine recognized ethnic groups. Nine different languages are spoken by the nine recognized ethnic groups, the most widely spoken language being Tigrinya, the others being Tigre, Saho, Kunama, Nara, Afar, Beja, Bilen and Arabic.
  • Eritrea is a unitary one-party presidential republic in which national legislative and presidential elections have never been held.
  • Eritrea is a member of the African Union, the United Nations, and the Intergovernmental Authority on Development, and is an observer state in the Arab League alongside Brazil and Venezuela.
  • Eritrea is located in East Africa. It is bordered to the northeast and east by the Red Sea, Sudan to the west, Ethiopia to the south, and Djibouti to the southeast. Eritrea lies between latitudes 12° and 18°N, and longitudes 36° and 44°E.
  • The country is virtually bisected by a branch of the East African Rift. Eritrea, at the southern end of the Red Sea, is the home of the fork in the rift.
  • The Dahlak Archipelago and its fishing grounds are situated off the sandy and arid coastline.

Geography of Eritrea

Geography of Eritrea
Figure: UN Map of Eritrea


  • The Central,
  • Anseba,
  • Gash-Barka,
  • Southern,
  • Northern Red Sea and
  • Southern Red Sea regions


117,600 km2





Bordering Countries:

Bordering countries are to the southeast by Djibouti, to the south by Ethiopia, and to the west by Sudan.

Total Size:

117,600 km2

Geographical Coordinates:

15°20′N 38°55′E

World Region or Continent:


General Terrain:

  • Dominated by extension of Ethiopian north-south trending highlands, descending on the east to a coastal desert plain, on the northwest to hilly terrain and on the southwest to flat-to-rolling plains

Geographical Low Point:

Near Lake Kulul within the Afar Depression −75 m

Geographical High Point:

Soira 3,018 m


  • The climate of Eritrea is shaped by its diverse topography and its location within the tropics.
  • The diversity in landscape and topography in the highlands and lowlands of Eritrea result in the diversity of climate across the country.
  • The highlands have temperate climate throughout out the year. The climate of most lowland zones is arid and semiarid.
  • Eritrea can be divided into three major climate zones : the central highlands, the coastal region, and the western lowlands. Each has a different climate pattern.
  • According to Köppen climate classification, Eritrea have either a hot semi-arid climate (BSh) or a hot desert climate (BWh), although temperatures are much moderated at the highest elevations.
  • In the central highlands, the hottest month is usually May to June with highs around 27 °C (80.6 °F) to 30 °C (86 °F). Winter is between December and February with lows at night that can be near freezing point.

Major cities:

  • Asmara
  • Keren
  • Teseney
  • Mendefera
  • Agordat
  • Assab
  • Massawa
  • Adi Quala
  • Senafe
  • Dekemhare
  • Segheneyti
  • Nakfa
  • Adi Keyh
  • Barentu
  • Beilul
  • Edd
  • Ghinda
  • Mersa Fatuma
  • Himbirti
  • Nefasit

Major Land forms:

Major landforms of Eritrea are dry plains, volcanic domes, towering mountains and pristine islands.

Major Rivers and Lakes:

Major rivers:

  • The Setit river,
  • The Gash river,
  • The Anseba river, and
  • The Barka river.

Major Lakes:

There are no lakes in Eritrea.

Natural Resources:

Natural Resources are natural gas, gold, copper, oil, zinc and potash.

Major Geographical Features:

Biomes & Ecosystems:

  • Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands


  • The topography of Eritrea is dominated by the extension of the Ethiopian north-south trending highlands, descending on the east to a coastal desert plain and on the northeast to hills and on the southwest to flat-to-rolling plains. Approximately 4% of the land is arable.


The Red Sea


  • Dahlak Kebir
  • Dhuladhiya
  • Dissei
  • Dohul
  • Erwa
  • Harat
  • Harmil
  • Howakil
  • Isra-Tu
  • Nahaleg
  • Nora
  • Shumma
  • Fatuma
  • Halib
  • Hando
  • Hanish Islands
  • Howakil Islands
  • Massawa Island

Mountain Ranges:

  • Emba Soira
  • Mousa Ali
  • Nabro Volcano
  • Alid Volcano
  • Jalua Volcano
  • Dubbi Volcano
  • Gufa Volcano
  • Dega
  • Gargiabo
  • Ramlo
  • Subucle

See Also:

World Map


Naveed Tawargeri

Hi, I'm Naveed Tawargeri, and I'm the owner and creator of this blog. I'm a Software Developer with a passion for Programming. 

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