Geography of Gambia – The Ultimate Free Guide 2021

  • The Gambia is a country in West Africa. It is the smallest country within mainland Africa and is surrounded by Senegal, except for its western coast on the Atlantic Ocean.
  • The Gambia is situated on both sides of the lower reaches of the Gambia River, the nation’s namesake, which flows through the center of the Gambia and empties into the Atlantic Ocean.
  • The Gambia shares historical roots with many other West African nations in the slave trade, which was the key factor in the placing and keeping of a colony on the Gambia River, first by the Portuguese, during which era it was known as A Gâmbia.
  • The name “Gambia” is derived from the Mandinka term Kambra/Kambaa, meaning Gambia River.
  • The country’s present boundaries were defined in 1889 after an agreement between the United Kingdom and France.

Geography of Gambia

Large Detailed City Map of Gambia


West Coast Region


10,689 km2




2.1 Million

Bordering Countries:

The Gambia is bordered by the Atlantic Ocean, and Senegal to the north, east, and south.

Total Size:

(4,127 sq mi)

Geographical Coordinates:

13.4432° N, 15.3101° W

World Region or Continent:

West Africa

General Terrain:

The grassy flood plain of the Gambia river contains Guinean mangroves near the coast, and becomes West Sudanian savanna upriver inland.

Geographical Low Point:

Atlantic Ocean 0 m.

Geographical High Point:

The highest point is Red Rock, at only 53 m above sea level.


  • The Gambia has a tropical climate with distinct dry and rainy seasons.
  • From November to mid-May there is uninterrupted dry weather.
  • Hot, humid weather predominates the rest of the year, with a rainy season from June to October; during this period.

Major cities:

Abuko, Bakau, Banjul, Bansang, Basse Santa Su, Brikama, Brufut, Farafenni, Gimara Bakadaji, Gunjur, Janjanbureh (Georgetown), Jufureh, Kalagi, Kanilai, Kerewan, Kololi, Kuntaur, Lamin (North Bank Division), Lamin (Western Division), Mansa Konko, Nema Kunku, Serekunda, Soma, Sukuta, Tanji

Major Land forms:

  • The Gambia is dominated by the Gambia River. The River Gambia divides the country into two strips of land no wider than 30 km.
  • The country is generally low-lying with nowhere in the Gambia above 60 meters. Over 48% of the total land area of the Gambia is below 20 meter high with nearly one-third of the country, at or below 10 meters above sea level.
  • Only four percent of the country’s land area is above 50 meters.

Major Rivers and Lakes:

  • Massarinko Bolon
  • Niji Bolon
  • Gambia River
  • Buniadu Bolon
  • Lamin Bolon
  • Mandina Bolon
  • Pirang Bolon
  • Bulok Bolon
  • Sami Bolon
  • Bintang Bolon
  • Jurunku Bolon
  • Koular Bolon (Mini Minium Bolon)
  • Boa Bolon
  • Sofaniama Bolon
  • Simbara Bolon
  • Nianija Bolon
  • Pallan Bolon
  • Pachar Bolon
  • Sandougou River
  • Punti Bolon
  • Mansala Bolon
  • Sankutu Bolon
  • Tuba Kuta Bolon
  • Prufu Bolon
  • Kumbija Bolon
  • Shima Simong Bolon
  • Sine Bolon
  • Oyster Creek
  • Cape Creek
  • Kotu Stream
  • River Tanji
  • Tujering River
  • River Benifet
  • Allahein River

Famous Places:

  • Abuko Nature Reserve
  • Banjul
  • The Albert Market
  • Old Town
  • Bijilo Forest Park
  • Brufut Beach
  • Janjangbureh
  • Sanyang Village and Beach
  • National Museum of Gambia
  • Wassu Stone Circles

Natural Resources:

  • Fish,
  • Clay,
  • Silica sand,
  • Titanium,
  • Tin, and
  • Zircon

Major Geographical Features:

Biomes & Ecosystems:

  • Tropical and subtropical grasslands,
  • savannas, and
  • shrublands biome.


  • The terrain of Zambia is mostly high plateau, with some hills and mountains. The lowest point is the Zambezi river, at 329 m (1,079 ft) above sea level, with the highest being Mafinga Central in the Mafinga Hills, at 2,339 m (7,674 ft) above sea level.


Atlantic Ocean and The Indian Ocean,


  • River Club.
  • Islands of Siankaba.
  • Zambezi River Lodge.
  • Royal Chundu Island Lodge.
  • Royal Chundu River Lodge.
  • Sussi Lodge & Chuma.
  • Sekoma Island.
  • Imbabala Zambezi Safari Lodge.

Mountain Ranges:

  • Mwanda Peak
  • Mount Mumpu

Provinces of Gambia:

  • Central,
  • Copperbelt,
  • Eastern,
  • Luapula,
  • Lusaka,
  • Muchinga,
  • North-Western,
  • Northern,
  • Southern and Western.

Facts about Gambia:

  • The termite hills are the size of a house
  • Zambia is a completely landlocked country
  • The traditional name for Victoria Falls is Mosi-oa-Tunya.
  • Zambia relies on copper as one of its biggest exports
  • It’s home to the Big Five of wildlife.
  • The currency of Zambia is called the Zambian kwacha.

Gambia on the World Map

Gambia on World Map

Gambia Political Map

See Also:

World Map



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