Geography of São Tomé and Príncipe – Ultimate Free Guide 2021

Learn facts and Geography of São Tomé and Príncipe including Major Geographical Features, Natural resources, Region, area, Capital, Border countries, rivers in São Tomé and Príncipe.

  • São Tomé and Príncipe is a small nation composed of an archipelago located in the Gulf of Guinea of the equatorial Atlantic Ocean.
  • The nation’s main islands are São Tomé Island and Príncipe Island, for which the country is named. These are located about 300 and 250 kilometers (190 and 160 mi), respectively, off the northwest coast of Gabon in Central Africa.
  • The nation’s geographic coordinates are a latitude of 1°00′N and a longitude of 7°00′E.
  • São Tomé and Príncipe constitute one of Africa’s smallest countries, with 209 km (130 mi) of coastline.
  • The two islands that make up what is called São Tomé and Príncipe were formed 30 million years ago during the Oligocene era, due to volcanic activity beneath deep water along the Cameroon Line.

Geography of São Tomé and Príncipe

Geography of São Tomé and Príncipe
Figure: Geography of São Tomé and Príncipe


Central Africa


1,001 km2


São Tomé



Bordering Countries:

The country’s closest neighbors are Gabon and Equatorial Guinea on the Atlantic coast of central Africa.

Total Size:

386 Sq Mi

Geographical Coordinates:

0°20′N 6°44′E

World Region or Continent:


Geographical Low Point:

At 0 m, the Atlantic Ocean is the lowest elevation in the country.

Geographical High Point:

The highest peak here (Pico de São Tomé) is at 2,024 m which is also the highest point in the country. The highest point on Príncipe is at 948 m.


  • The climate of S. Tomé and Príncipe is essentially conditioned by its geographic location, subject to the seasonal translation of low equatorial pressures, the monsoon winds from the south, the warm Guinea Current and the relief.
  • At sea level, the climate is tropical—hot and humid with average yearly temperatures of about 26 °C (78.8 °F) and little daily variation.

Major cities:

  • São Tomé
  • Santo Amaro
  • Neves
  • Santana
  • Trindade
  • Santa Cruz
  • Pantufo
  • Guadalupe
  • Santo António
  • Santa Catarina
  • Porto Alegre

Major Rivers and Lakes:

General terrain:

Volcanic, mountainous

Major rivers:

The largest river of São Tomé is the Io Grande, which drains the southeastern portion of the island. Other large rivers on São Tomé include the Abade, the Manuel Jorge and the Rio d ‘Ouro and the Rio Papagaio is the longest river on Príncipe .

Natural Resources:


Major Geographical Features:


Atlantic Ocean


  • Principe Island
  • Sao Tome Island
  • Rolas Island
  • Bom Bom Island
  • Tinhosa Pequena
  • Tinhosa Grande
  • Santana Island
  • Ilheu das Cabras
  • Pico do Príncipe
  • Pedra da Galé
  • Pedras Tinhosas

Mountain Ranges:

  • Pico de Sao Tome
  • Pico do Príncipe
  • Cão Grande Peak

See Also:

World Map – The Ultimate Free Guide


Naveed Tawargeri

Hi, I'm Naveed Tawargeri, and I'm the owner and creator of this blog. I'm a Software Developer with a passion for Programming. 

Click Here to Leave a Comment Below 0 comments

Leave a Reply: