Geography of Rwanda – The Ultimate Free Guide 2021

Learn facts and Geography of Rwanda including Major Geographical Features, Natural resources, Region, area, Capital, Border countries, rivers in Rwanda.

  • Rwanda officially the Republic of Rwanda,] is a landlocked country in the Great Rift Valley, where the African Great Lakes region and East Africa converge. Located a few degrees south of the Equator, Rwanda is bordered by Uganda, Tanzania, Burundi, and the Democratic Republic of the Congo.
  • Rwanda has a population of over 12.6 million living on 26,338 km2 (10,169 sq mi) of land, and is the most densely populated mainland African country.
  • A million people live in the capital and largest city Kigali.
  • Rwandans are drawn from just one cultural and linguistic group, the Banyarwanda.
  • Rwanda’s developing economy suffered heavily in the wake of the 1994 genocide, but has since strengthened.
  • The economy is based mostly on subsistence agriculture. Coffee and tea are the major cash crops for export.
  • Tourism is a fast-growing sector and is now the country’s leading foreign exchange earner.
  • Rwanda is one of only two countries in which mountain gorillas can be visited safely, and visitors pay high prices for gorilla tracking permits.

Geography of Rwanda

Geography of Rwanda
Figure: Geography of Rwanda – Wikipedia


East Africa


Ranked 144th in the world in terms of size





Bordering Countries:

  • Rwanda is located in Central/Eastern Africa, and is bordered by the Democratic Republic of the Congo to the west, Uganda to the north, Tanzania to the east, and Burundi to the south.

Total Size:

26,338 km2

Geographical Coordinates:

2°00′S 30°0′E

World Region or Continent:


General Terrain:

The centre of the country is predominantly rolling hills, while the eastern border region consists of savanna, plains and swamps. Rwanda has a temperate tropical highland climate, with lower temperatures than are typical for equatorial countries due to its high elevation.

Geographical Low Point:

Rusizi River 950 m

Geographical High Point:

Mount Karisimbi 4507 m


  • Rwanda has a temperate tropical highland climate, with lower temperatures than are typical for equatorial countries because of its high elevation.
  • Kigali, in the center of the country, has a typical daily temperature range between 12 and 27 °C (54 and 81 °F), with little variation through the year.
  • There are two rainy seasons in the year; the first runs from February to June and the second from September to December. These are separated by two dry seasons: the major one from June to September, during which there is often no rain at all, and a shorter and less severe one from December to February.

Major cities:

  • Kigali
  • Kicukiro
  • Rutongo
  • Nyanza
  • Muhanga
  • Kamonyi
  • Ruhango
  • Butare
  • Gisagara
  • Nyaruguru
  • Nyamagabe
  • Byumba
  • Ruhengeri
  • Kibuye
  • Cyangugu
  • Gisenyi
  • Rwamagana
  • Kibungo

Major Land forms:

  • While the central and western part of this country is dominated by mountains; savannah, swamps, and plains are major landforms in central part, thus giving it a diverse touch.
  • Rwanda Safari has fewer wildlife population, nevertheless it is quite varied and in fair number given the area of this country.

Major Rivers and Lakes:

Major Rivers :

  • Mwogo,
  • Rukarara,
  • Mukungwa,
  • Base,
  • Nyabarongo and
  • The Akanyaru.

Natural Resources:

  • gold
  • cassiterite
  • wolframite
  • columbite-tantalite
  • methane
  • hydropower
  • coffee
  • tea
  • arable land
  • green beans

Major Lakes

  • Lake Kivu
  • Lake Muhazi
  • Lake Ihema
  • Lake Rweru
  • Lake Burera
  • Lake Ruhondo
  • Lake Mugesera
  • Lake Cyohoha South

Major Geographical Features:

Biomes & Ecosystems:

  • Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands,
  • Savannas and Shrublands.
  • Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests


  • Rwanda is at least 1,000 m (3,300 ft.) above sea level, the central plateau is between 1,500 and 2,000 m (4,950–6,600 ft.) high.
  • In the northwest on the border with the DROC are the volcanic Virunga Mountains; the highest peak, Mt. Karisimbi (4,519 m/14,826 ft.), is snowcapped.


  • Indian Ocean,
  • Atlantic Ocean.


Idjwi Island

Mountain Ranges:

  • Virunga Mountains,
  • Mount Karisimbi,
  • Gahinga Volcano,
  • Mount Bisoke,
  • Mount Sabyinyo,
  • Muhavura volcano,
  • Mikeno Volcano,
  • Mount Huye

Provinces of Rwanda :

  • Kigali
  • Southern
  • Western
  • Northern
  • Eastern

See Also:

World Map – The Ultimate Guide


Naveed Tawargeri

Hi, I'm Naveed Tawargeri, and I'm the owner and creator of this blog. I'm a Software Developer with a passion for Programming. 

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