Geography of Somaliland – The Ultimate Free Guide 2021

Learn facts and Geography of Somaliland including Major Geographical Features, Natural resources, Region, area, Capital, Border countries, rivers in Somaliland.

  • Somaliland is an unrecognized sovereign state in the Horn of Africa, internationally considered to be part of Somalia.
  • Somaliland is a de facto sovereign state in the Horn of Africa, considered by most states to be part of Somalia.
  • Somaliland lies in the Horn of Africa, on the southern coast of the Gulf of Aden. It is bordered by Djibouti to the northwest, Ethiopia to the south and west, and Somalia to the east.
  • Somaliland was first inhabited around 10,000 years ago during the Neolithic age.
  • Somaliland is located in the East African sub-continent between the equator and the Gulf of Aden.
  • The name Somaliland is derived from two words: “Somali” and “land”. The area was named when Britain took control from the Egyptian administration in 1884, after signing successive treaties with the ruling Somali Sultans from the Isaaq, Issa, Gadabursi, and Warsangali clans.

Geography of Somaliland

Geography of Somaliland


Horn of Africa


Ranked 90nd




5.7 million

Bordering Countries:

Total land borders:
Djibouti: 60 km (37 mi)
Ethiopia: 766 km (476 mi)
Somalia: 402 km (250 mi)

Total Size:

177,000 km2

Geographical Coordinates:

9.75°N 45.966667°E

World Region or Continent:



850,800 km

Geographical Low Point:

Guban −100m (−328 ft)

Geographical High Point:

Shimbiris 2,460 m (8,070.9 ft)


  • Somaliland lies north of the Equator and has a dry climate, with most regions designated as arid, with a few, smaller, areas as semi-arid.
  • The temperatures in the highlands range from around 20–24 °C (68–75 °F).
  • In the lower regions such as the valleys and costal plains, the average temperatures are in the higher range of 28–35 °C (82–95 °F).
  • Most regions in Somaliland experience an average of 14.5 inches (370 mm) per year.
  • The primary rainy season is during the spring, with a secondary, more limited, season in late fall. Most of the annual rainfall is concentrated in the highland and plateaux regions of the country, which both receive an average of 300–600 millimetres (12–24 in) per year.
  • Somaliland experiences four seasons of climate:
    1. Gu (spring) is the longest wet season, and lasts from late March to early June. The increased rain at this time usually corresponds to abundant water and increased breeding of livestock.
    2. Xagaa (summer) is a dry windy season, that typically lasts from June through September. 
    3. Deyr (fall) is the shorter rainy season which covers late September through November.
    4. Jiilaal (winter) is the long dry season which lasts from December until mid-March. 

Major cities:

  • Hargeisa
  • Gabiley
  • Burao
  • Erigavo
  • Berbera
  • Las Anod

Major Land forms:

The major land forms of Somalia include:

  • The coastal and sub-coastal plains along the Gulf of Aden in the north. This area is locally known as the “Guban”.
  • The Golis Mountain Range (also known as the “Cal Madow”) running almost parallel to the “Guban”, from the western border with Ethiopia to the eastern cape of Ras Caseyr. The highest peak of Somalia – Mount Shimbiris at 7,926 ft (2,416 m) – is found in this area.
  • The Daroor Valley, separated from the South by the Sool Plateau and the Nugaal Valley, is located South of the Golis Mountains.
  • The Hawd Plateau, which lies South of the Golis Mountain and extends to Ethiopia.
  • The Upper Shabelle River Valley, characterized by low undulating hills and steep slopes topped by a low escarpment.
  • The Floodplains extending along the Juba and Shabelle rivers.

Major Rivers and Lakes:

Major Rivers:

  • Shebelle
  • Jubba
  • Ewaso Ng’iro
  • Dawa

Somalia does not have lakes.

Natural Resources:

Natural resources in Somaliland are iron ore, Titanium, Aluminum, Tungsten, Tin, Galena and other rare earth metals like Columbite Tantalite, Molybdenum and many other rare minerals which are only found few places in the world.

Major Geographical Features:

Biomes & Ecosystems:

  • Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests, Mangroves, Deserts and Xeric Shrublands.


  • The highlands are cool and wet area in the center of Somaliland that contain a series of mountain ranges. To the west are the Golis Mountains and to the east, the Ogo Mountains. The highest peak is found on Mount Shimbiris of the Cal Madow range, with a hight of 2,460 metres (8,070 ft).


 Arabian Sea


  • Arabian SeaThere are six main islands in the Bajuni archipelago.
    1. Jasiirada Chandra,
    2. Jasiirada Chovaye,
    3. Jasiirada Chula,
    4. Jasiirada Koyama,
    5. Jasiirada Darakasi and
    6. Jasiirada Ngumi.

Mountain Ranges:

Ogo Mountais.

See Also:

World Map

Web References:

Naveed Tawargeri

Hi, I'm Naveed Tawargeri, and I'm the owner and creator of this blog. I'm a Software Developer with a passion for Programming. 

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