Geography of Sudan – The Ultimate Free Guide 2021

In this article we will learn about Geography of Sudan.

  • Sudan is officially the Republic of the Sudan, is a country in Northeast Africa. It is bordered by Egypt to the north, Libya to the northwest, Chad to the west, the Central African Republic to the southwest, South Sudan to the south, Ethiopia to the southeast, Eritrea to the east, and the Red Sea to the northeast.
  • Sudan’s history goes back to the Pharaonic period, witnessing the Kingdom of Kerma (c. 2500–1500 BC), the subsequent rule of the Egyptian New Kingdom (c. 1500 BC–1070 BC) and the rise of the Kingdom of Kush (c. 785 BC–350 AD), which would in turn control Egypt itself for nearly a century.
  • After the fall of Kush, the Nubians formed the three Christian kingdoms of Nobatia, Makuria and Alodia, with the latter two lasting until around 1500. Between the 14th and 15th centuries, much of Sudan was settled by Arab nomads.
  • Northern Sudan, lying between the Egyptian border and Khartoum, has two distinct parts, the desert and the Nile Valley.
  • To the east of the Nile lies the Nubian Desert; to the west, the Libyan Desert

Geography of Sudan

 Geography of Sudan
Figure: Location of Sudan


Federated state


22,140 km2





Bordering Countries:

  • Sudan is bounded on the north by Egypt, on the east by the Red Sea, Eritrea, and Ethiopia, on the south by South Sudan, on the west by the Central African Republic and Chad, and on the northwest by Libya.

Total Size:

1,886,068 km2

Geographical Coordinates:

15°00′N 30°00′E

World Region or Continent:


General Terrain:

Northern Sudan, lying between the Egyptian border and Khartoum, has two distinct parts, the desert and the Nile Valley. To the east of the Nile lies the Nubian Desert; to the west, the Libyan Desert. They are similar—stony, with sandy dunes drifting over the landscape.

Geographical Low Point:

Red Sea 0 m

Geographical High Point:

Kinyeti 3,187 m


Sudan has a tropical climate. Summer temperatures often exceed 43.3 degrees Celsius (110 degrees Fahrenheit) in the desert zones, and rainfall is negligible. Dust storms frequently occur in desert zone. High temperatures also occur in the south throughout the central plains region, but the humidity is generally low. In Khartoum the average annual temperature is about 26, 7° Celsius (80° Fahrenheit); and annual rainfall, most of which occurs between mid-June and September, is about 254 mm (about 10 inch).

Major cities:

  • Omdurman
  • Khartoum
  • Khartoum North
  • Nyala
  • Port Sudan
  • El-Obeid
  • Kassala
  • Wad Madani
  • El-Gadarif
  • Al-Fashir

Major Land forms:

  • Ras Kasar
  • Tagabo Hills
  • Wadi Abu Dom

Major Rivers and Lakes:

Major Rivers:

  • Nile
  • White Nile
  • Blue Nile
  • Atbarah
  • Bahr al-Arab
  • Barka
  • Tekeze
  • Dinder
  • Mareb
  • Angereb

Major Lakes :

Lake Nasser, also called Lake Nubia, reservoir on the Nile River, in Upper Egypt and northern Sudan. It was created by the impounding of the Nile’s waters by the Aswan High Dam, which was built in the 1960s and dedicated in 1971.

Natural Resources:

Sudan’s natural resources are natural gas, gold, silver, chromite, manganese, gypsum, mica, zinc, iron, lead, uranium, copper, kaolin, cobalt, granite, nickel, tin, and aluminum offer significant economic potential.

Major Geographical Features:

Biomes & Ecosystems:

Sudan is divided into three biome which make up several ecological regions.

  • Ethiopian Montane Forests
  • East Sudanian Savanna
  • Sahelian Acacia Savanna


  • The country consists of a vast plain bordered on three sides by mountains: to the north east by the Red Sea Hills, to the west by the Marrah Mountains (Jabal Marrah), in the southeastern corner of Sudan by the Didinga Hills, home to the Didinga (diDinga) people, and in south by the Imatong mountains near the border to Uganda.


The Red Sea


  • Tuti Island
  • Saï (island)
  • Aba Island
  • Argo Island
  • Askut
  • Tombos (Nubia)
  • Badian Island
  • Meinarti
  • Omjerky
  • Kulubnarti

Mountain Ranges:

  • Jebel Dair
  • Kinyeti
  • Iro (South Sudan)
  • Jebel Umm Arafieb
  • Jebel Barkal
  • Gabal Elba
  • Mont Abourasséin

States of Sudan:

  • Khartoum
  • North Kordofan 
  • Northern
  • Kassala
  • Blue Nile
  • North Darfur
  • South Darfur 
  • South Kordofan 
  • Al Jazirah
  • White Nile 
  • River Nile
  • Red Sea
  • Al Qadarif
  • Sennar 
  • West Darfur 
  • Central Darfur
  • East Darfur
  • West Kordofan

See Also:

World Map


Naveed Tawargeri

Hi, I'm Naveed Tawargeri, and I'm the owner and creator of this blog. I'm a Software Developer with a passion for Programming. 

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