Geography of Nigeria- The Ultimate Free Guide 2021

  • Nigeria is a country in West Africa.
  • Nigeria shares land borders with the Republic of Benin in the west, Chad and Cameroon in the east, and Niger in the north. It also shares a border with the self-declared but internationally unrecognized state of Ambazonia in the southeast.
  • Its coast lies on the Gulf of Guinea in the south and it borders Lake Chad to the northeast.
  • Nigeria has been home to several indigenous pre-colonial states and kingdoms since the second millennium BC, with the Nok civilization in the 15th century BC marking the first internal unification in the country

Geography of Nigeria

Administrative Map of Nigeria

Administrative Map of Nigeria


 West Africa


923,769 km2





Bordering Countries:

Nigeria shares land borders with 

  • The Republic of Benin in the west, Chad and
  • Cameroon in the east, and
  • Niger in the north.

Largest City:


Geographical Coordinates:

9°4′N 7°29′E

World Region or Continent:


General Terrain:

The topography of Nigeria consists of plains in the north and south interrupted by plateaus and hills in the center of the country. The Sokoto Plains lie in the northwestern corner of the country, while the Borno Plains in the northeastern corner extend as far as the Lake Chad basin.

Area comparative:

slightly more than twice the size of California


853 km


  • The tropical monsoon climate, designated by the Köppen climate classification as “Am”, is found in the southern part of the country.
  • This climate is influenced by the monsoons originating from the South Atlantic Ocean, which are brought into the country by the MT air mass, a warm moist sea-to-land seasonal wind.
  • The southern part of Nigeria experiences heavy and abundant rainfall. These storms are usually convectional in nature because of the region’s proximity to the equatorial belt.
  • Rainfall in the coastal belt of the Niger Delta is heavy due to the closeness of the Delta region to the equator. Annual rainfall totals vary from 2,400 to over 4,000 millimeters.

Major cities:

  • Lagos
  • Ibadan
  • Port Harcourt
  • Kano
  • Benin City
  • Jos Plateau, Nigeria
  • Ilorin
  • Enugu
  • Abuja
  • Kaduna
  • Maiduguri

Major Land forms:

  • Jos Plateau
  • Niger Riger
  • Niger Delta
  • Udi Hills
  • Lake Chad
  • Mandara Mountains
  • Mambila Mountains
  • Chappal Waddi, which is the highest mountain in Nigeria.
  • Benue River
  • Sahara Desert

Major Rivers and Lakes:

Major Rivers:

  • Ouémé River
  • Okpara River
  • Ogun River
  • Oyan River
  • Ofiki River
  • Ona River (Awna River)
  • Ogunpa River
  • Osun River
  • Erinle River
  • Otin River
  • Oba River
  • Omi Osun
  • Benin River
  • Osse River
  • Niger River
  • Escravos River (distributary)
  • Forcados River (distributary)
  • Chanomi Creek (distributary)
  • Nun River (distributary)
  • New Calabar River (distributary)
  • Anambra River
  • Benue River
  • Okwa River
  • Aba River
  • Otamiri River
  • Kwa Ibo River
  • Cross River
  • Akwayafe River
  • Great Kwa River
  • Calabar River
  • Asu River
  • Aboine River
  • Ekulu River
  • Mada River
  • Katsina Ala River
  • Menchum River
  • Ankwe River
  • Donga River
  • Bantaji River (Suntai River)
  • Wase River
  • Taraba River
  • Kam River
  • Pai River
  • Gongola River
  • Hawal River
  • Faro River
  • Gurara River
  • Kaduna River
  • Mariga River
  • Tubo River
  • Galma River (Nigeria)
  • Moshi River
  • Teshi River
  • Oli River
  • Malendo River
  • Sokoto River
  • Ka River
  • Zamfara River
  • Gaminda River
  • Rima River
  • Goulbi de Maradi River
  • Gagere River
  • Bunsuru River
  • Bonny River
  • Imo River
  • Anyim River

Natural Resources:

  • Natural gas,
  • Petroleum,
  • Tin,
  • Columbite,
  • Iron ore,
  • Coal,
  • Limestone,
  • Lead,
  • Zinc,
  • Arable land

Major Geographical Features:

Biomes & Ecosystems:

The four main biomes found within Nigeria are tropical rainforests, swampy mangroves and savannas.


  • Nigeria’s most expansive topographical region is that of the Niger and Benue River valleys, which merge into each other and form a “y” shaped confluence at Lokoja.
  • Plains rise to the north of the valleys. To the southwest of the Niger there is “rugged” highland, and to the southeast of the Benue hills and mountains are found all the way to the border with Cameroon.
  • Coastal plains are found in both the southwest and the southeast.
  • The Niger Delta is located in the southern part of Nigeria. It is one of the world’s largest arcuate fan-shaped river deltas.
  • The riverine area of the Niger Delta is a coastal belt of swamps bordering the Atlantic.


Atlantic Ocean


  • Victoria Island, Lagos
  • Banana Island, Lagos
  • Bonny Island
  • Ikoyi
  • Gberefu Island

Mountain Ranges:

  • Mount Dimlang,
  • Chappal Waddi,
  • Chappal Hendu,
  • Kafasiradi Hill,
  • Shebo Hill,
  • Lugadorena Hill,
  • Tchangue,
  • Danko Hill,
  • Aso Rock,
  • Wase Rock

States of Nigeria:

  • Abia
  • Adamawa
  • Akwa Ibom
  • Anambra
  • Bauchi
  • Bayelsa
  • Benue
  • Borno
  • Cross River
  • Delta
  • Ebonyi
  • Edo
  • Ekiti
  • Enugu
  • GombeOyo
  • Plateau
  • Rivers
  • Zamfara
  • Imo
  • Jigawa
  • Kaduna
  • Kano
  • Katsina
  • Kebbi
  • Kogi
  • Kwara
  • Lagos
  • Nasarawa
  • Niger
  • Ogun
  • Ondo
  • Osun
  • Sokoto
  • Taraba
  • Yobe

Physical Map of Nigeria

Physical Map of Nigeria

Nigeria on world Map

Nigeria on world Map

See Also:

World Map


Naveed Tawargeri

Hi, I'm Naveed Tawargeri, and I'm the owner and creator of this blog. I'm a Software Developer with a passion for Programming. 

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