Geography of Tonga – The Ultimate Free Guide 2021

  • Tonga is located in Oceania, It is a small archipelago in the South Pacific Ocean, directly south of Samoa and about two-thirds of the way from Hawaii to New Zealand. It has 169 islands, 36 of them inhabited, are divided into three main groups – Vava’u, Ha’apai, and Tongatapu.
  • The largest island, Tongatapu, on which the capital city of Nukuʻalofa is located, covers 257 square kilometres (99 sq mi).
  • Geologically the Tongan islands are of two types: most have a limestone base formed from uplifted coral formations; others consist of limestone overlaying a volcanic base.

Geography of Tonga


Geography of Tonga
Fig:wikipedia.com

Region:

Oceania

Continet:

Pacific Ocean

Area:

Ranked 174th

Capital:

Nuku’alofa

Population:

1.04 lakhs

Bordering Countries:

  • Fiji to the west,
  • Cook Islands to the East and
  • Samoa north.

Total Size:

747 Km2

Geographical Coordinates:

21.1790° S, 175.1982° W

General Terrain:

The largest island, Tongatapu, on which the capital city of Nukuʻalofa is located, covers 257 square kilometres (99 sq mi). Geologically the Tongan islands are of two types: most have a limestone base formed from uplifted coral formations; others consist of limestone overlaying a volcanic base.

Geographical Low Point:

Pacific Ocean 0 metres (0 ft)

Geographical High Point:

on Kao 1,033 metres (3,389 ft)

Climate:

  • Tonga’s climate is warm, tropical and welcoming. Temperatures are warm all year round and can get hot in the summer, but seldom reach above 35°C (95°F).
  • The winter temperatures (April to September) are only slightly cooler than summer temperatures (November to February).

Major cities:

  • Nuku’alofa,
  • Neiafu,
  • Mu;a,
  • Kolovai,
  • Pangai

Major Rivers and Lakes:

There are no rivers in Tonga, but ʿEua and Niuatoputapu have creeks

Famous Places:

  • Vava’u
  • Nuku’alofa
  • Ha’atafu Beach
  • Mapu’a ‘a Vaea Blowholes
  • Pangaimotu island

Natural Resources:

  • Tonga’s natural resources include
    1. Fish,
    2. Fertile soil, and
    3. Agricultural crops such as bananas,
    4. Coffee,
    5. Vanilla beans,
    6. Coconuts,
    7. Squash,
    8. Black pepper,
    9. Ginger, and
    10. Copra.

Major Geographical Features:

Biomes & Ecosystems:

Tropical and subtropical moist broadleaf forests.

Topography:

The islands run roughly north–south in two parallel chains; the western islands are volcanic and the eastern are coralline encircled by reefs. At 10,800 m (35,400 ft) deep, the Tonga Trench is one of the lowest parts of the ocean floor.

Oceans:

South Pacific Ocean

Islands:

  • Tongatapu
  • Eua
  • Niuatoputapu
  • Niuafo’ou
  • Tofua
  • Hunga Tonga
  • Tafahi
  • Lifuka
  • Late (Tonga)
  • Kao (island)
  • Fonualei
  • Nuku
  • Uiha
  • ‘Ata
  • Uoleva
  • Nomuka

Facts about Tonga:

  • Tonga is the only monarchy in Oceania.
  • In 1616, Dutch explorers became the first Europeans to visit Tonga
  • Between 1773 and 1777, famed British explorer Captain James Cook visited Tonga three times.
  • Cook referred to Tonga as the ‘Friendly Islands’ because the indigenous people gave him and his crew a warm welcome.
  • Furthermore, respectful dress is very important in Tonga. It is illegal for men and women to be topless in a public place.

See Also:

World Map

References:

UPSC Overflow
 

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